Water, Beeswax, Shea Butter, Evening Primrose Oil [Gamma-Linolenic Acid (GLA)], Essential Oils of Peppermint, Melissa, Blue Chamomile, Rosemary and Lavender, Extracts of Feverfew, Linden and Ginger, Olive Squalane, Magnesium, Taurine, Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C), Riboflavin (Vitamin B2), Grapefruit Seed Extract (Natural Preservative).
Blue Chamomile Essential Oil
Blue Chamomile Essential Oil helps inhibit the release of histamine and the subsequent inflammatory response.
Evening Primrose Oil
Evening Primrose Oil contains the essential fatty acids omega-3 (linolenic acid) and omega-6 (linoleic acid) as well as GLA (gamma-linolenic acid), and is an important modulator of the inflammatory response.
Feverfew Extract inhibits the release of platelet metabolites that are potent mediators of inflammation and contribute to painful cerebrovascular spasm.
Ginger Extract is vasodilating and antispasmodic, which helps improve circulation and relieve painful vascular and muscular spasms.
Linden (Lime Blossom) Extract has anti-histamine, anxiolytic and relaxing properties and helps reduce smooth muscle tension associated with vascular spasm.
Magnesium exerts rapid and sustained relief of acute migraine pain by regulating neuromuscular activity due to its effect on serotonin and other migraine-related receptors and neurotransmitters.
Melissa Essential Oil
Melissa Essential Oil modulates the secretion of immunoreactive beta-endorphins (part of the brain opiate system for controlling pain) through the action of its high ascorbic acid content, and enhances a number of aspects of lymphocytic function in the immune system. It has powerful anti-inflammatory, analgesic and sedative effects.
Olive Squalane helps maintain healthy skin hydration and is a natural skin penetration enhancer that facilitates absorption of active ingredients.
Peppermint Essential Oil
Peppermint Essential Oil is analgesic and anti-inflammatory and is an excellent topical pain reliever.
Riboflavin (Vitamin B2) regulates mitochondrial oxidative metabolism, maintains endogenous glutathione levels (major anti-oxidant) and is important for lymphocyte replication and mediating the immune response.
Taurine is an essential amino acid that has protective effects against cellular damage due to hypoxia and reoxygenation.